University of Minnesota researcher Peter Snyder studies heat islands in the Twin Cities metro area, where large expanses of “gray infrastructure” create microclimates of slightly elevated temperatures. Climate change is about averages and patterns, and the data Snyder is collecting at sensor stations across the metro reveal that climate change impacts are at play, exacerbating the heat island effect. In a changing climate, extreme heat events – likely to intensify in both frequency and severity – will place greater stress on vulnerable Minnesotans and public health. “I’m rather frustrated with the pace of change” in addressing climate change, says Snyder, explaining that his frustration is mostly a result of how much he knows about what’s going on thanks to his work. “We need to be doing more, and more quickly,” he concludes.